Telangana

         GEOGRAPHICAL  |   DEMOGRAPHY  |  AGRICULTURE  |  IRRIGATION                                                                   Sources: telengana.gov.in & wikipedia.org

                             

 

Telangana  తెల౦గాణ  لنگانہ

Coordinates (Hyderabad): 17.366°N 78.476°ECoordinates: 17.366°N 78.476°E

Country

India

Region

South India, Deccan

Established

2 June 2014

Capital

Hyderabad

Largest city

Hyderabad

Districts

10

Government

 • Governor

E. S. L. Narasimhan

 • Chief minister

Kalvakuntla Chandrashekar Rao (TRS)

 • Legislature

Bicameral (119 + 40 seats)

 • Lok Sabha constituencies

17

 • High Court

High Court of Judicature at Hyderabad

Area

 • Total

114,840 km2 (44,340 sq mi)

Area rank

12th

Population (2011)

 • Total

35,286,757

 • Rank

12th

 • Density

310/km2 (800/sq mi)

Demonym

Telanganite

Time zone

IST (UTC+05:30)

ISO 3166 code

IN-xx (not assigned)

Vehicle registration

TS

Literacy

66.05%

Official language

Telugu, Urdu

Website

telangana.gov.in

^† Joint Capital with Andhra Pradesh

North Telangana Zone

Districts: Adilabad, Karimnagar, Nizamabad, Medak (Northern part), Warangal (Except N.W.Part), Eastern tips of Nalgonda and Khammam.

Rainfall
South West Monsoon : 900-1500 mm.

Temperature:
Max. 30-37oC & Min. 21-25 oC

Soil Type:
Chalkas, Red sandy soils, Dubbas, Deep Red loamy soils, Very deep B.C. Soils.

Crops Grown:
Mango, Sweet Orange and Flowers.

Southern Telangana Zone

Districts: Hyderabad, Rangareddy, Mahabubnagar (except southern border), Nalgonda (except North eastern border), Medak (Southern parts), Warangal (North Western Part).

Rainfall:

South West Monsoon : 700-900 mm.

Temperature:
Max. 28-34oC & Min. 22-23 oC

Soil Type:
Red earths with loamy sub-soils (Chalkas).

Crops Grown:
Mango, sweet orange, sapota, vegetables and flowers.

 

Telangana is a land-locked state in southern India. Its area of 114,840 km2 makes it the twelfth-largest state in the country. Most of it was part of the princely state of Hyderabad (Medak and Warangal Divisions), which was ruled by the Nizams during the British Raj until 1947, and later until 1948, when it joined the Union of India. A small portion was part of Madras. In 1956, Hyderabad state was dissolved and Andhra State was merged with the Telangana region of the state of Hyderabad to form the state of Andhra Pradesh. On 2 June 2014, Telangana became the 29th state of India, consisting of the ten north-western districts of Andhra Pradesh. The city of Hyderabad will serve as the joint capital of Telangana and the successor state of Andhra Pradesh for up to ten years.

Telangana is bordered by the states of Maharashtra to the north and north-west, Karnataka to the west, Chhattisgarh to the north-east, and Andhra Pradesh to the south and east. Telangana has an area of 114,840 square kilometres (44,340 sq mi), and a population of 35,286,757 (2011 census). Hyderabad,Secunderabad, Warangal, Karimnagar and Nizamabad are the major cities in Telangana State.

        Description: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/6/6f/Hyderabad_state_from_the_Imperial_Gazetteer_of_India%2C_1909.jpg/300px-Hyderabad_state_from_the_Imperial_Gazetteer_of_India%2C_1909.jpg
Hyderabad state in 1909

Etymology

The name Telangana is thought to have been derived from the word Telugu, which is the land of Telugu-speaking people. Trilinga, as in Trilinga Desa, which translates to "the country of the three lingas". According to a Hindu legend, Lord Shiva descended as linga on three mountains, namely Kaleshwaram, Srisailam and Draksharama, which marked the boundaries of the Trilinga desa which then is later called as 'Thelinga', 'Telunga', 'Telugu'.

The name "Telangana" was designated to distinguish the predominantly Telugu-speaking region of the erstwhile Hyderabad State from its predominantly Marathi-speaking one, Marathwada.

One of the earliest uses of a word similar to Telangana can be seen in a name of Malik Maqbul (14th century C.E.), who was called Tilangani, which implies that he was from Tilangana. He was the commander of Warangal Fort (Kaṭaka pāludu in Telugu).

History

Early history

The Satavahana dynasty had its roots in Koti Lingala on the banks of the Godavari River, in present day Karimnagar district.

Kotilingala in Karimnagar was the capital of Assakajanapada, considered one of the 16 great Janapadas of early India. This area yielded coins issued by pre-Satavahana kings. Coins of Chimukha, the founder of Satavahana dynasty, and those cast in lead copper issued by later kings were found.

The Satavahana dynasty (230 BCE to 220 CE) became the dominant power in the area. It originated from the lands between the Godavari and Krishna rivers. After the decline of the Satavahanas, various dynasties, such as the Vakataka, Vishnukundina, Chalukya, Rashtrakuta and Western Chalukya, ruled the area.

Kakatiya Dynasty

      Description: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/3/31/Warangal_fort.jpg/150px-Warangal_fort.jpg
Torana built by the Kakatiyas in Warangal in 1163

      Description: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/7/76/Ramappa1.jpg/220px-Ramappa1.jpg
Ramappa Temple, built in 1213 by ruler Recherla Rudra of Kakatiyas

The area experienced its golden age during the reign of the Kakatiya dynasty that ruled most parts of what is now Andhra Pradesh from 1083 to 1323 CE. Ganapatideva, who came to power in 1199, was known as the greatest of the Kakatiyas, and the first after the Satavahanas to bring the entire Telugu area under one rule. He put an end to the rule of the Telugu Cholas, who accepted his suzerainty in the year 1210. He established order in his vast dominion that stretched from the Godavari delta in the east to Raichur (in modern day Karnataka) in the west and from Karimnagar and Bastar (in modern day Chhattisgarh) in the north to Srisailam and Tripurantakam, near Ongole, in the south. It was during his reign that the Golkonda fort was constructed. Rudrama Devi and Prataparudra were prominent rulers from the Kakatiya dynasty. The dynasty weakened with the attack of Malik Kafur in 1309 and was dissolved with the defeat of Prataparudra by the forces of Muhammad bin Tughluq in 1323.

Qutbshahis and nizams

The area came under the Muslim rule of the Delhi Sultanate in the 14th century, followed by the Bahmani Sultanate. Quli Qutb Mulk, a governor of Golkonda, revolted against the Bahmani Sultanate and established the Qutb Shahi dynasty in 1518. On 21 September 1687, the Golkonda Sultanate came under the rule of the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb after a year-long siege of the Golkonda fort.

       Description: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d1/Charminar-Pride_of_Hyderabad.jpg/150px-Charminar-Pride_of_Hyderabad.jpg
Charminar in Hyderabad

In 1712, Qamar-ud-din Khan was appointed to be viceroy of the Deccan with the title Nizam-ul-Mulk (meaning "Administrator of the Realm"). In 1724, he defeated Mubariz Khan to establish autonomy over the Deccan Suba and took the name Asif Jah, starting what came to be known as the Asif Jahi dynasty. He named the area Hyderabad Deccan. Subsequent rulers retained the title Nizam ul-Mulk and were called Asif Jahi nizams or nizams of Hyderabad. The Medak and Warangal divisions were ruled by the nizams.

When Asif Jah I died in 1748, there was political unrest due to contention for the throne among his sons, who were aided by opportunistic neighbouring states and colonial foreign forces. In 1769, Hyderabad city became the formal capital of the nizams. Nizam signed a subsidiary alliance in 1799 with British and lost its control over the state's defence and foreign affairs. Hyderabad State became a princely state among the presidencies and provinces of British India. Nizam in two instances ceded the Coastal and Rayalaseema districts of his dominion to British due to his inability to pay for the help that British rendered in his wars against Vijayanagar and Tipu Sultan armies. The ceded Coastal and Rayalaseema districts were called Sarkar and Ceded areas and were part of the British Madras Presidency until India's independence and part of Madras state until 1953.

       Description: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/9/9e/India_Palace_.jpg/150px-India_Palace_.jpg
Telangana was the seat of numerous dynasties. Chowmahalla Palace was home to the nizams of Hyderabad.

Post-independence

When India became independent from the British Empire in 1947, the nizam of Hyderabad did not want to merge with the Indian Union and wanted to remain independent under the special provisions given to princely states. The government of India annexed Hyderabad State on 17 September 1948 in Operation Polo. The central government appointed a civil servant, M. K. Vellodi, as first chief minister of Hyderabad State on 26 January 1950. He administered the state with the help of English educated bureaucrats from Madras State and Bombay State, who were part of British India and familiar with Indian system unlike the bureaucrats of Hyderabad state who used completely different administrative system from British India and used Urdu as the state language.

In 1952, Dr. Burgula Ramakrishna Rao was elected chief minister of Hyderabad State in the first democratic election. During this time, there were violent agitations by some Telanganites to send back bureaucrats from Madras state, and to strictly implement rule by natives of Hyderabad.

Meanwhile, Telugu-speaking areas in the Northern Circars and Rayalaseema regions were carved out of the erstwhile Madras state as a result of the 'fast unto death' protest by Potti Sreeramulu to create Andhra State in 1953.

Telangana Rebellion

The Telangana Rebellion was a peasant revolt supported by the communists. It took place in the former princely state of Hyderabad between 1946 and 1951. It was led by the Communist Party of India (CPI).

The revolt began in the Nalgonda district against the feudal lords of Reddy and Velama castes. It quickly spread to the Warangal and Bidar districts. Peasant farmers and labourers revolted against the local feudal landlords (jagirdars and deshmukhs) and later against the king of Hyderabad State. The violent phase of the movement ended after the central government sent in the army. Starting in 1951, the CPI shifted to a more moderate strategy of seeking to bring communism to India within the framework of Indian democracy.

States Reorganisation Commission

        Description: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/d/d6/Hyderabad_State_reorganization_1956.png/254px-Hyderabad_State_reorganization_1956.png
Hyderabad State (in yellowish-green)

In December 1953, the States Reorganisation Commission (SRC) was appointed to form states on linguistic bases. An agreement was reached between Telangana leaders and Andhra leaders on 20 February 1956 to merge Telangana and Andhra with promises to safeguard Telangana's interests. After reorganisation in 1956, the region of Telangana was merged with Andhra State to form Andhra Pradesh.

Following the Gentlemen's agreement, the central government established a unified Andhra Pradesh on 1 November 1956.

Telangana movement

There have been several movements to invalidate the merger of Telangana and Andhra, major ones occurring in 1969, 1972, and 2009. The movement gained momentum over decades for a new state of Telangana. On 9 December 2009 the government of India announced process of formation of Telangana state. Violent protests led by politicians raised in the Coastal Andhra and Rayalseema regions immediately after the announcement, and the decision was put on hold on 23 December 2009.

The movement continued in Hyderabad and other districts of Telangana. There have been hundreds of claimed suicides, strikes, protests and disturbances to public life demanding separate statehood.

Bifurcation of Andhra Pradesh

On 30 July 2013, the Congress Working Committee unanimously passed a resolution to recommend the formation of a separate Telangana state. After various stages the bill was placed in the parliament in February 2014. In February 2014, Andhra Pradesh Reorganisation Act, 2014 bill was passed by the parliament of India for the formation of Telangana state comprising ten districts from north-western Andhra Pradesh. The bill received the assent of the president and published in the gazette on 1 March 2014.

The state of Telangana was officially formed on 2 June 2014. The occasion was marked by pink balloons and an hour long firework display starting at midnight. Cultural displays highlighting the language and traditions of the state's people were held. The newly chosen state song "Jaya Jaya he Telangana" was played at more than 150 celebrations across the state. Kalvakuntla Chandrashekar Rao was chosen as the first chief minister of Telangana. He and his cabinet were sworn in at 8:15 am local time. Hyderabad will remain as the joint capital of both Telangana and Andhra Pradesh for a period of 10 years.

      Description: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/3/34/Basilica_of_Our_Lady_of_the_Assumption%2C_Secunderabad.JPG/220px-Basilica_of_Our_Lady_of_the_Assumption%2C_Secunderabad.JPG
Basilica of Our Lady of the Assumption in Secunderabad

Geography

Telangana is situated on the Deccan Plateau, in the central stretch of the eastern seaboard of the Indian Peninsula. It covers 114,800 square kilometres (44,300 sq mi). The region is drained by two major rivers, with about 79% of the Godavari River catchment area and about 69% of the Krishna River catchment area, but most of the land is arid. Telangana is also drained by several minor rivers such as the Bhima, the Manjira and the Musi.

The annual rainfall is between 900 to 1500 mm in northern Telangana and 700 to 900 mm in southern Telangana, from the southwest monsoons. Various soil types abound, including chalkas, red sandy soils, dubbas, deep red loamy soils, and very deep b.c.  soils that facilitate planting mangoes, oranges and flowers. About 45% of the forest area of Andhra Pradesh is located in five districts of Telangana.

Climate

Telangana is a semi-arid area and has a predominantly hot and dry climate. Summers start in March, and peak in May with average high temperatures in the 42 °C (108 °F) range. The monsoon arrives in June and lasts until September with about 755 mm (29.7 inches) of precipitation. A dry, mild winter starts in late November and lasts until early February with little humidity and average temperatures in the 22–23 °C (72–73 °F) range.

 

Climate data for Hyderabad

Month

Jan

Feb

Mar

Apr

May

Jun

Jul

Aug

Sep

Oct

Nov

Dec

Year

Record high °C (°F)

33.4
(92.1)

36.8
(98.2)

39.9
(103.8)

43.1
(109.6)

43.7
(110.7)

45.5
(113.9)

36.0
(96.8)

34.7
(94.5)

35.3
(95.5)

36.1
(97)

33.8
(92.8)

32.7
(90.9)

45.5
(113.9)

Average high °C (°F)

28.6
(83.5)

31.8
(89.2)

35.2
(95.4)

37.6
(99.7)

38.8
(101.8)

34.4
(93.9)

30.5
(86.9)

29.6
(85.3)

30.1
(86.2)

30.4
(86.7)

28.8
(83.8)

27.8
(82)

32.0
(89.6)

Daily mean °C (°F)

22.2
(72)

25.1
(77.2)

28.4
(83.1)

31.5
(88.7)

33.0
(91.4)

29.3
(84.7)

27.0
(80.6)

26.2
(79.2)

26.6
(79.9)

25.7
(78.3)

23.2
(73.8)

21.6
(70.9)

26.65
(79.98)

Average low °C (°F)

14.7
(58.5)

17.0
(62.6)

20.3
(68.5)

24.1
(75.4)

26.0
(78.8)

23.9
(75)

22.5
(72.5)

22.0
(71.6)

21.7
(71.1)

20.0
(68)

16.4
(61.5)

14.1
(57.4)

20.2
(68.4)

Record low °C (°F)

6.1
(43)

11.3
(52.3)

14.6
(58.3)

17.2
(63)

17.8
(64)

18.6
(65.5)

19.2
(66.6)

20.0
(68)

19.1
(66.4)

13.3
(55.9)

10.6
(51.1)

8.5
(47.3)

6.1
(43)

Rainfall mm (inches)

3.2
(0.126)

5.2
(0.205)

12.0
(0.472)

21.0
(0.827)

37.3
(1.469)

96.1
(3.783)

163.9
(6.453)

171.1
(6.736)

181.5
(7.146)

90.9
(3.579)

16.2
(0.638)

6.1
(0.24)

804.5
(31.674)

Avg. rainy days

.3

.4

.9

1.8

2.7

7.6

10.6

10.1

8.9

5.7

1.6

.4

51.0

 % humidity

56

49

39

37

39

61

71

74

72

63

58

57

56.3

Mean monthly sunshine hours

279.0

271.2

263.5

273.0

282.1

180.0

142.6

136.4

168.0

226.3

246.0

263.5

2,731.6

Source #1: India Meteorological Department (1951–1980), NOAA of the USA (extremes, mean, humidity, 1971–1990)

Source #2: Hong Kong Observatory (sun only, 1971–1990) IMD • Hyderabad

 

      

 

 

Contact us

State Horticulture Mission
Department of Horticulture
Public Garden, Nampally
Hyderabad, Telanagana
Pin: 500 004
Telefax: 040-23232253
email: shmcell.tg@gmail.com